| ORIENTAL (INDOMALAYAN REALM) CHIRONOMUS SPECIES
Compiled by Jon Martin
Genetics Department, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia
This listing is also available in pdf format (1.8 MB)(Created 21 March 2011). This pdf contains information not yet on the web version.
|This is a preliminary listing of the species of the genus Chironomus found in India, South East Asia, China and Japan, particularly those for which cytological confirmation exists. I am very much indebted to numerous people who have provided me with material from these areas.
Species listed according to the cytocomplex to which they belong (i.e. the combination of chromosome arms in the polytene karyotype.
C. javanus Kieffer
(?)C. pulcher Wiedermann
C. suwaiGolygina & Martin
C. salinarius Kieffer
C. acerbiphilus Tokunaga, 1939
C. apicatus Johannsen
C. circumdatus (Kieffer, 1916)
C. 'costatus' (aut)
C. crassiforceps Kieffer
C. flaviplumus Tokunaga, 1940
C. nr. flaviplumus
C. kiiensis Tokunaga, 1936
C. incertipenis Chaudhuri & Das
C. ramosus Chaudhuri et al.
C. samoensis Edwards. - not an Oriental species, but included here to clarify the differences from supposed Oriental material, e.g. C. flaviplumus Tokunaga, C. nr. flaviplumus, and C. nr. samoensis sensu Chaudhuri et al.
C. striatipennis Kieffer
C. yoshimatsui Martin & Sublette, 1972
C. sp. R&S
C. sp. SS
C. sp. PK2
C. sp. PK5
C. sp. PK6
C. biwaprimus Sasa & Kawai
C. atrosignatus Kieffer 1911
C. brevistylus Guha et al. 1985
C. costatus Johannsen 1932
C. (?Chaetolabis) echizensis Sasa 1994
C. flavitibia Johannsen 1932
C. formosae Kieffer 1912
C. fortistylus Chaudhuri et al. 1992
C. fujisecondus Sasa 1985
C. fujitertius Sasa 1985
C. fusciceps Yamamoto 1992
C. indiaensis Martin, 2011 (formerly C. samoensis sensu Chattopadhyay et al., 1991)
C. nippodorsalis Sasa, 1979
C. nipponensis Tokunaga, 1940
C. (Austrochironomus) okinawanus Hasegawa & Sasa 1987
C. palpalis Johansen 1932
C. quadratus Johannsen 1932
C. setonis Tokunaga 1936
C. sp. “shimantoabeus” Sasa, et al. 1998
C. simantobeceus Sasa et al. 1998
C. sulfurosus Yamamoto 1992
C. tokarabeceus Sasa & Suzuki 1995
C. trinigrivittatus Tokunaga 1940
C. uttarpradeshensis Singh & Kulshretha 1976
In general, the morphological terminology used in this document follows Sæther (1980), Webb & Scholl (1985) and Vallenduuk & Moller Pillot (1997).
In the adult descriptions reference is made to the types of superior volsella shape as recognized by Strenzke (1959). This is a helpful initial classification, but experience has shown that the types are not discrete, but are part of a continuum. The three categories as described by Strenzke are:
S-type: The SV is shoe shaped, i.e. it is drawn out distal-medially into a broad, rounded lobe (Fig. a-c, below) (Strenzke's figure suggests the most distal point will be at the toe of the shoe).
D-type: The SV is ribbon-like: distally it may have a weakly thickened shoulder (Fig. d, below) (most distal point is not at the internal margin), or bent in a shallow sickle-shape (Fig. e-f, below).
E-type: The SV has the form of an elephant's tusk; distally it is sharply graded to a point, or with an expanded knob (Fig. g-i, below) (line from base to most distal point goes outside the limits of the SV).
In the following descriptions, reference is made to the mentum and mandible types as described for European Chironomus species by Webb & Scholl (1985) and Vallenduuk & Moller Pillot (1997)
The mentum type is defined only by the degree of development of the 4th lateral teeth:
Type I - height in same line as the rest of the lateral teeth;
Type II - 4th laterals reduced, height about equal to that of the 5th laterals;
Type III - 4th laterals further reduced, height less than that of the 5th laterals.
The mentum may be further classified by the characters of the central trifid tooth:
Type I - C2 teeth only partially separate from C1, i.e. as shoulders on C1.
Type II - C1 broad, C2 teeth distinctly separated.
Type III - C1 tooth relatively narrow and much higher than the separated C2 teeth.
Type IV - C1 tooth relatively narrow, but only slightly higher than the separated C2 teeth
The mandible type is defined by the degree of darkening and separation of the 3rd inner tooth:
Type I - 3rd tooth pale and almost completely fused on lower margin;
Type II - some degree of pigmentation and tooth partly free on lower margin;
Type III - 3rd tooth as dark as other inner teeth and completely separate.
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